BEE International Blog

Cell Rupture: Detergents vs Traditional Physical Methods

Posted by Tal Shechter on Sep 26, 2016 12:30:00 PM

cell ruptureDetergents for Cell Rupture

Detergents (or surfactants) are used in cell lysis solutions because they disrupt the distinct interface between hydrophobic and hydrophilic systems. They help to solubilize membrane proteins and lipids, thereby causing the cell to lyse and release its contents.

Detergents are comprised of a polar hydrophilic head group and a nonpolar hydrophobic tail. They are categorized by the nature of the head group as either ionic, nonionic or zwitterionic.

Nonionic and zwitterionic detergents are generally milder and less denaturing than ionic detergents. Examples include CHAPS (zwitterionic) and Triton (nonionic). Ionic detergents are considered to be harsh detergents. They are strong solubilizing agents and tend to denature proteins. Examples include soap or alcohol ethoxysulfates (anionic detergents), and quaternary ammonium compounds (cationic detergents).

Physical Methods of Cell Rupture

There are several methods that are commonly used to physically lyse cells, including:

  1. Mechanical disruption: Using various equipment to cut, chop, grind and crush the sample.
  2. Sonication: Using pulsed, high frequency sound waves to lyse cells. This process can be direct (a probe is inserted into the sample) or indirect (the energy is transmitted through a bath of water into the sample vessels).
  3. Freeze-Thaw method: This technique involves freezing a cell suspension and then thawing the material at room temperature. This causes cells to swell and ultimately break as ice crystals form during the freezing process and then contract during thawing. The process is repeated as necessary.
  4. Homogenization: The sample is forced through a very narrow nozzle. The higher the amount of energy applied during the homogenization process, the more efficient the cell lysis.

Which one to choose?

Detergent-based lysis is a popular method for cell rupture. It is fairly easy to do and does not require any special equipment. However, detergent cell lysis is often too mild, and needs to be done in conjunction with a physical method like grinding or homogenization. Also, bear in mind that harsh detergents can often damage or destroy the contents of the cell if used incorrectly.

Our high pressure homogenizing technology at BEE International allows you to gently rupture cells without damaging the valuable intracellular materials. No harsh chemicals are introduced into the process, and all results are 100% scalable to manufacturing.

Still unsure? Download our free eBook: 7 Key Factors to Consider When Choosing a Cell Lysis Method or contact us here.

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Topics: Cell Lysis

Types of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Equipment

Posted by Tal Shechter on Sep 22, 2016 12:30:00 PM

Pharmaceutical Manufacturing equipmentPharmaceutical manufacturing is a highly controlled and regulated environment. Almost every process can be automated; and there is a piece of pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment involved in every step. Below, we have highlighted some common equipment used in solid dose (tablet and capsule) and liquid pharmaceutical manufacturing:

Processing equipment

    • Agitators: To mix liquids, to promote chemical reactions and to increase heat or cooling transfers.
    • Blowers: Used in solvent recovery and other evaporation applications.
    • Boilers: To create steam by applying heat energy to water.
    • Capsule equipment: Different equipment is available to fill, polish, and sort capsules.
    • Capsule and tablet printers: For printing information like drug names or dosage on the capsules or tablets.
    • Centrifuges: Used for separation of liquids of different densities, or for separation of liquids from solids.
    • Chillers: To quickly lower temperatures.
    • Coaters: To coat tablets or capsules with films like a sugar film.
    • Cooling towers: Used for cooling liquids or condensing steam.
    • Dryers and Granulators: For drying liquid preparations into powders or granules.
    • Heat exchangers: Used to transfer heat from one medium to another.
    • High Pressure Homogenizers: The most efficient fluid processing equipment for particle size reduction and cell lysis.
    • Inspection machines: Allow for visual inspection of the product as it is moved along by rotating rollers.
    • Metal detectors: For detecting tramp metal (bits of metal like nuts, screws, or broken fragments of machinery) that may have contaminated the product.
    • Mixers: For blending and particle size reduction.
    • Ovens: For providing necessary heat or drying.
    • Pulverizers / Cone mills: Particle size reduction equipment for granules.
    • Tablet press: For producing tablets.
    • Tablet deduster: For removing any dust created in the tablet press. Often also polishes the tablet.
    • Sifters: For sieving powders or granules.
    • Spray coating machines: Used for spray coating liquid onto a powder.
    • Tanks: For holding liquids.

Packaging equipment

    • Blister packers: Designed to pack tablets, capsules, softgels, injection solutions, syringes and other small medical items into blister packs. “Deblistering” machines are also available to recover tablets, capsules or softgels from blister packs.
    • Bottling and filling lines: For filling bottles with liquids or containers with tablets, capsules or softgels.
    • Cappers: Designed to place caps onto filled bottles or containers of medicines.
    • Cartoners: These sophisticated machines can fill small medicine boxes with blisters packs, fold and insert leaflets, and close, code, and seal the box.
    • Counters: Counts capsules, tablets, softgels and any other small, solid items.
    • Induction Sealers: Seals aluminum foil seals to the bottle mouth.
    • Labeling equipment: For attaching or printing labels onto the packaging of boxes, bottles, containers, tubes etc.
    • Tube fillers: For filling and sealing tubes of ointments, creams and gels.

As one of the top high pressure homogenizer manufacturers, BEE understands the complex nature of pharmaceutical manufacturing and that’s why we’ve created homogenizers that help! From research and development to manufacturing, our homogenizers scale with your project to produce more efficient cell lysis and particle size reduction. Contact us today or download our free eBook, Advantages of BEE Homogenizers for the Pharmaceutical Industry, to see how our homogenizers can benefit you:

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Topics: Pharmaceutical

Why Scalability Matters for Particle Size Reduction Equipment

Posted by Deb Shechter on Sep 21, 2016 12:30:00 PM

scalability-in-particle-size-reduction-equipment.jpgScalability in Process Manufacturing

Process manufacturing is the branch of manufacturing associated with ingredients or raw materials, formulas, and manufacturing recipes. This kind of manufacturing is common in the food, beverage, chemical, pharmaceutical, consumer packaged goods, and biotechnology industries.

Scalability is a crucial element in process manufacturing, as production processes must be proportionally adjustable to adapt to production needs. In order to successfully progress from the laboratory to large-scale production, products should be developed, from day one, with scalability in mind. R&D scientists should work together with production, forecasting, supply chain, and procurement staff in order to develop a product that can be successfully and profitably manufactured.

Scalable product development also makes for a shorter transition time between the product research and launch phases; which is key in the highly competitive spaces like the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries.  

Scalability in Particle Size Reduction Equipment

All too often, problems arise when scaling up laboratory processes that require particle size reduction equipment. If, for example, your formulation was developed using a bench-top French press, it will yield very different results when manufactured on an industrial standard homogenizer. Complications also inevitably arise when scaling up high-viscosity liquids, for example, as air is often entrapped during the mixing phase, resulting in false volumes.

The laboratory process should essentially be a scaled-down version of the commercial process, which should in turn ensure the chemical and physical integrity of the product. It is therefore incredibly important to have compatible equipment in your laboratory, pilot plant, and on the production floor; so that results that are attained in the laboratory can be repeated on a larger scale.   

DeBEE High Pressure Homogenizers: Scalable Results for Commercially Viable Products

At BEE International, our high pressure homogenizers produce consistent and scalable results, often replacing other types of equipment to improve performance and to save manufacturing time and costs. All of our equipment boasts a proven linear scale-up from the laboratory, to the pilot plant, and up to production volumes. Our unique modular technology allows for tighter distribution of smaller particles, maximum particle size reduction in fewer passes, and increased manufacturing efficiency and reduced cost.

Interested in particle size reduction? Download our free eBook How to Achieve Efficient & Consistent Particle Size Reduction” or contact us to discuss your particle size reduction equipment needs.

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Topics: Particle Size Reduction

Types of Emulsifiers & How High Pressure Homogenization Creates Stable Emulsions

Posted by David Shechter on Sep 19, 2016 12:30:00 PM

emulsifiers.jpgAn emulsifier (or an emulgent) is a substance that essentially helps in the formation and stabilization of an emulsion. Emulsifiers are surface-active agents that act as the interface between the two immiscible liquids, like oil and water. Emulsifier molecules have a hydrophilic end that forms chemical bonds with water but not with oils; and a hydrophobic end that forms chemical bonds with oils but not with water.

There are many different types of emulsifiers used in manufacturing. Here, we will highlight some of those used in the Food, Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic industries:

Emulsifiers in the Food Industry

The use of emulsifiers is prevalent in the manufacture of food products. Think of a simple vinaigrette salad dressing. If you apply kinetic energy (i.e. shake the bottle), the oil and water will form a fairly homogenous mixture. However, if you let it stand for a minute, it will separate out again. If you introduce an emulsifier like mustard or lecithin, the salad dressing will remain a homogenous mixture for longer. This produces the “creamy” style salad dressings that are preferred by many consumers.

Some common types of emulsifiers in the food industry include egg yolk (where the main emulsifying agent is lecithin), soy lecithin, mustard, Diacetyl Tartaric Acid Esters of Monoglycerides (DATEM), PolyGlycerol Ester (PGE), Sorbitan Ester (SOE) and PG Ester (PGME).

Emulsifiers in the Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Industries

Different types of emulsifiers are used in pharmacy to prepare emulsions such as creams, balms and ointments. These products usually consist of a carrier, such as water, to which a chemical with medicinal properties is added. This emulsion is stabilized by the addition of an emulsifier to prevent separation and increase the shelf life of the product.

Emulsifiers are often used in beauty products like creams and lotions to mix water with essential oils. Water in oil emulsions are used for a heavier, greasier feel (e.g. night & sun protection creams). Oil in water emulsions are used in products with a lighter feel (e.g. moisturizing lotions or day creams).

Detergents are a type of emulsifier that will physically interact with both oil and water, thus stabilizing the interface between the oil and water droplets in suspension. This principle is exploited in the manufacture of soaps, to remove grease.

High Pressure Homogenization for Stable Emulsions

Emulsifiers clearly play an important role in the manufacture of countless products, but they are not always suitable (e.g. in the case of milk), and they are often not enough. DeBEE High Pressure Homogenizers can work alone or with an emulsifier for a smoother, more homogenous emulsion with more desirable properties.

Contact us today to discuss your particular emulsion needs, or for a free, confidential sample testing and analysis.

For more information about homogenization, particle size reduction, and efficient and consistent results, download our FREE eBook:

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Topics: Emulsions

How Homogenization Benefits Emulsions in the Food Industry

Posted by Deb Shechter on Sep 16, 2016 12:30:00 PM

How_Homogenization_Benefits_Emulsions_in_the_Food_Industry_.jpgAn emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible liquids (like oil and water), where small droplets of one liquid are dispersed throughout the second liquid. Emulsions can be classified as follows:

  1. Oil in water emulsion – where oil droplets are dispersed in the water phase e.g. homogenized milk or a “creamy” style salad dressing.
  2. Water in oil emulsion – where water droplets are dispersed in an oil phase e.g. margarine.

Let’s Start with Milk

The purpose of homogenization in milk is to break down the fat molecules so that they remain suspended throughout the milk and resist separation. Without homogenization, fat molecules will rise to the top and form a layer of cream, with the watery liquid or skim milk at the bottom.

Homogenization of commercial milk is widespread and expected by consumers in the USA. So much so, that the federal classification of milk IS homogenized milk, and the law does not require homogenized milk to be labelled as such. Homogenization is a purely mechanical process and doesn’t involve any additives.

A dairy processing facility will typically separate the milk into skim milk and cream. They then go on to recombine (homogenize) these to make products of the desired fat content, like whole milk (3.5% fat), reduced-fat milk (1% or 2% fat), and skim milk (0% fat). Yogurt, cheeses, and ice creams of varying fat content are made the same way, by recombining the components.

Homogenized Food Products

Homogenization is widely used throughout the food industry. It is common in the manufacture of any milk-based products to prevent a cream line or sedimentation, e.g. in chocolate milk or iced coffee drinks. Homogenization is used to improve the viscosity, taste and texture of cream or juice-based drinks, to improve the mouthfeel of soy beverages, and to prevent the separation of the whey in yoghurt. Some cheeses are produced using homogenized milk, especially when manufacturers want to control the fat content, texture and color.

Many other food products benefit from homogenization:

  • cream cheese
  • mayonnaise
  • ice cream, cream products and dessert toppings
  • salad dressings
  • flavor emulsions for beverages, yoghurts, candy and countless other products
  • beverages
  • soups
  • sauces

DeBEE Homogenizers: High Pressure Homogenizers for the Food Industry

At BEE International, we understand food processing. Our equipment is designed for sanitary applications, and our unique, modular technology supports a wide variety of process configurations including a high pressure pasteurization option. Stringent FDA requirements are met with options such as automated control, in-line process design, data gathering, SCADA and validation documentation.

Click here to learn more about how our high pressure homogenizers can benefit your food products, or contact us today!

For more information about homogenization and how to achieve efficient and consistent particle size reduction, download our FREE eBook:

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Topics: Food Processing

French Press Cell Lysis: How Does It Compare to Homogenization?

Posted by David Shechter on Sep 15, 2016 12:30:00 PM

French_Press_Cell_Lysis-_How_Does_It_Compare_to_Homogenization.jpgThe French pressure cell press, or French press, is a piece of equipment used in laboratories to disrupt cell walls and cell membranes. The French press consists of a hydraulic pump that drives a piston. The piston forces the liquid sample through a tiny valve under high pressure.

As the sample passes through the valve, the cells experience shear stress, resulting in cellular disruption. Also, as the cells move through the valve, they experience decompression and subsequently expand and rupture. Click here to see a French press in action.

French press cell lysis is a technique commonly used for lysing bacterial cells, and other microorganisms for isolation of proteins and other cellular components. The shortcomings of French press cell lysis include:

  • Small sample size – This means low throughput. Even the larger units can only process around 40ml of sample at a time.

  • Expensive - A French press costs upwards of $3500. With such a low throughput, this equipment is expensive relative to the volume of sample that can be processed.

  • Pre-processing required - For many samples, pre-homogenization is necessary before using the French press.

  • Tends to clog – Due to the tiny valve, the French press tends to clog easily, especially with more viscous samples.

  • Not user-friendly – The French press is somewhat bulky, awkward to manipulate and difficult to clean.

High Pressure Homogenization for Cell Lysis

Homogenizers are the most efficient fluid processing equipment for cell lysis. DeBEE high pressure homogenizers are able to gently lyse a wide variety of cells. Our proprietary modular technology allows you to control the process of cell lysis, depending on your sample type.

We offer high pressure homogenizers for the laboratory, pilot plant units, large units for production facilities, and customized homogenizer solutions. BEE International’s patented technology utilizes ALL available mechanical forces for efficient cell lysis: including cavitation, shear and impact. Process intensity is adjustable from 2,000 - 45,000 psi / 150 - 3100 bar.

All of our equipment is always easy to operate and to clean; and produces a higher yield cell lysis in a shorter time. We guarantee reproducibility and scalability from laboratory and pilot scale up to our industrial units. Contact us today for a free sample testing and analysis, or to discuss your cell lysis equipment needs.

Interested in learning more about the best methods of cell lysis? Download our free eBook: 7 Key Factors to Consider When Choosing a Cell Lysis Method

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Topics: Homogenization

Pharmaceutical Size Reduction: How Size Affects Stability, Appearance & Properties

Posted by David Shechter on Sep 13, 2016 12:30:00 PM

pharmaceutical size reductionParticle size reduction in the pharmaceutical industry, or pharmaceutical size reduction, is an important initial step in the manufacture of most medicines. The pharmaceutical size reduction process is also referred to as comminution, diminution or pulverizations.

Pharmaceutical size reduction is used primarily for the purposes of control – control of the rates of dissolution and absorption, control of chemical reactions, and control of physical characteristics. Below we discuss how pharmaceutical size reduction affects the stability, appearance and the various properties of the product.

1. Stability

A product with a smaller, more uniform particle size is more stable and less likely to separate out. This translates to a longer shelf life and less waste.

2. Appearance

The smaller and more uniform the particle size, the smoother and more homogenous the product. This is beneficial for aesthetic as well as practical purposes. Pharmaceutical preparations meant for external application must be free of any sedimentation and gritty particles that may irritate the skin or eyes.

3. Properties

  • Increased therapeutic efficacy: The smaller the particle, the greater the total surface area. With an increased surface area, the rates of dissolution and absorption are increased. Bioavailability improves, and the therapeutic dose can be lowered. 
  • Different options for drug delivery: Oral delivery of drugs is not always ideal. Pharmaceutical size reduction can render particles small enough so that drugs can be inhaled or absorbed through the skin.
  • Improved processing: The size of the individual particles affects the bulk properties of the ingredient. A narrow particle size range distribution means that solids and powders are easier to mix effectively, and flow properties are improved.

BEE International: Your Partner in Pharmaceutical Size Reduction

Our high pressure homogenizers offer unique benefits for the pharmaceutical industry. DeBEE high pressure homogenizers are used all over the world to produce nano / micro emulsions and dispersions, lipids and suspensions for injectables, vaccines, targeted drug delivery, inhalants, time release, anesthetics and antibiotics. Our modular equipment allows you to optimize and control the mixing process by varying the cavitation, shear and impact forces applied to your product.

We are keenly aware of the stringent regulations applied to pharmaceutical manufacturing; and we’re looking forward to working with you in bringing your product to market.

Want to learn more about how BEE International's range of high pressure homogenizers can benefit your pharmaceutical products? Download our free eBook “Advantages of BEE Homogenizers for the Pharmaceutical Industry”:

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Topics: Pharmaceutical

5 Reasons Why You Need a High Pressure Homogenizer in Your Biotechnology Research Laboratory

Posted by Tal Shechter on Sep 12, 2016 12:30:00 PM

high pressure homogenizerBiotechnology is healing, fueling and feeding the world. Groundbreaking innovations in the fields of medicine, energy and food production are changing the way that we live. In the laboratory, biotechnology harnesses cellular and biomolecular processes to develop technologies and products that help improve our lives and the health of our planet.

1. High Yield Cell Lysis

DeBEE Laboratory High Pressure Homogenizers are ideal for rupturing a variety of different cell types, including E. coli, yeast, mammalian tissue, bacteria, algae, fungi and insect cells. We know that while some cells need just a gentle pressure for rupture, others (like yeast or fungi) are more challenging. With our biotechnology high pressure homogenizers, the end result is a higher yield in a shorter time.

2. Efficient and Uniform Particle Size Reduction

Our biotechnology high pressure homogenizers are the most efficient fluid processing equipment available for particle size reduction for micro and nano emulsions and dispersions.  Our equipment can produce nanoparticles of around or below 100 nm.

3. Innovation with Controlled Experimentation

Innovation and experimentation go hand-in-hand, and for this reason, our unique modular technology is designed for process flexibility. You are able to optimize the pressure for each different application or cell type (without damaging the intracellular materials).

Our biotechnology high pressure homogenizers improve results in the fields of Bio-pharmacy, Nano-biotechnology, Bio-agriculture, Industrial-biotechnology and Bio-environment. Scientists are able to create more effective medicines, modify microorganisms to produce vaccines and antibiotics, synthesize new chemicals and develop alternative biofuels that work to preserve our environment.

4. 100% Scalable Results

We know that laboratory results are meaningless unless they are repeatable on a larger scale. BEE International guarantees that all laboratory results are 100% scalable up to manufacturing volumes, allowing you to bring your innovations to the market.

5. Lifetime Training and Support

BEE International Applications and Service Group provides equipment training upon initial installation, as well as additional training at a later stage for any new operators. We provide free technical support via telephone or email, and our knowledgeable, responsive staff are here to ensure that you get the best use out of your new equipment.

We also offer application support, and would love to help in developing your new product or improving an existing one. Click here to learn more about our free, confidential sample testing service. Contact us today so that we canhelp you make sure you have the right equipment for your biotechnology research laboratory.

For more information on particle size reduction and how to achieve efficient and consistent results, download our FREE eBook:

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Topics: High Pressure, Biotechnology, Homogenizer

Cell Lysis Techniques: Why Homogenization Excels

Posted by David Shechter on Sep 7, 2016 11:30:00 AM

cell lysisCell lysis (or cell disruption) is the rupture of the cell membrane resulting in the release of cell contents, and the subsequent death of the cell. The fluid containing the contents of lysed cells is called a lysate.

Cell lysis is used in laboratories to separate the intracellular contents, e.g. in DNA or RNA extraction. Cell lysis is also a key component in protein purification. Protein purification involves a series of processes to isolate one or a few proteins from the rest of the lysate.

Cell lysis disturbs the carefully controlled cellular environment, allowing for the possibility of damage to the intracellular contents. Proteases (enzymes that break down proteins) are also released upon cell lysis, so the process should be kept quick, the lysate must be kept cool, or protease inhibitors should be added to the lysis buffer.

Mechanical cell lysis techniques include high shear mixing, traditional homogenization, sonication, grinding, and high pressure homogenization. Chemical cell lysis techniques include osmotic lysis, the use of detergents, chelating agents, or chaotropic agents.

Key Factors for Successful Cell Lysis Techniques:

  • Intracellular proteins should be accessible for extraction and solubilization.
  • The process should be flexible, as different cells require different cell lysis strategies.
  • The process should be relatively easy to perform.
  • The ideal technique results in a high yield in a short time.
  • Results should be consistently reproducible and scalable.

High Pressure Homogenization: A Superior Cell Lysis Technique

DeBEE high pressure homogenizers are able to gently lyse a wide variety of cells. This is because our proprietary technology allows you to control the process and vary the pressure according to cell type. Cells are ruptured, but without disturbing the valuable intracellular material within.

Our modular equipment allows for a flexible process and independent control of pressure, flow, cavitation, impact, shear, and process duration. At the heart of our proprietary technology is our BEE homogenizing cell. This supports powerful, repeated use of ALL mixing forces (turbulence, cavitation, shear and impact). Our equipment is easy to use, produces better results in fewer passes, and results are always scalable.

BEE: “Best Emulsifying Equipment”

At BEE International, we are passionate about product innovation and are committed to providing the best possible results for your product or application. We are experienced in every aspect of high energy mixing; and all of our equipment reflect our dedication to advancing the technology of homogenization. 

Contact us to learn more about our cell lysis solutions, and check out our free eBook: 7 Key Factors to Consider When Choosing a Cell Lysis Method.

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Topics: Cell Lysis

Particle Size Reduction Methods: Which Is Best?

Posted by Deb Shechter on Sep 2, 2016 12:30:00 PM

particle size reductionParticle size reduction is a crucial initial step in the production of countless end products across all manufacturing industries. Think of wheat that needs to be ground in the production of flour, or rocks and rubble that must be crushed in order to make sand, and pharmaceutical ingredients that need to be finely milled for incorporation into drugs.

There are many available particle size reduction methods. Your method of choice needs to be best suited to the properties of your feedstock or raw material. For example, you would choose different processing equipment for different materials based on whether they are hard, soft, abrasive, moist, sticky, flammable, heat sensitive etc. You also need to take into account your feedstock particle size, and the properties of your end product.

Let’s take a look at a few common mechanical particle size reduction methods, and some of their common uses in industry:

Cutting equipment: Often used in the food industry for cutting down meat, vegetables and fruit. A bowl chopper, for example, consists of a large shallow bowl which revolves underneath a sharp, rotating knife.

Milling equipment: Can be divided into crushers or grinders. Crushers compress material, and are often used in the sugar industry to crush raw sugar cane. Grinders use shear and impact to grind larger particles into smaller ones. Examples of grinders include roller mills (used in producing wheat flour), ball mills (widely used in producing cement, ceramics and pigments), and hammer mills (often used in waste management to break down large materials).

Homogenizing equipment: Homogenization is the process of combining two immiscible liquids together into an emulsion - where tiny particles of one substance are dispersed throughout the second substance. A high pressure homogenizer works by forcing liquid at high pressure through a very narrow nozzle. Through the application of several forces (cavitation, turbulence, impact and shear), the liquid that flows out of the homogenizer now has a reduced and more uniform particle size.

DeBEE High Pressure Homogenizers:  A Fast & Reliable Particle Size Reduction Method

DeBEE High Pressure Homogenizers provide efficient, consistent particle size reduction for your laboratory, pilot plant or manufacturing facility. We also gladly provide customized solutions for even the most demanding environment or industry requirements.  

Contact BEE International to discuss your equipment needs and to find the right fit for your product. We also provide support in developing new products or improving existing ones: Click here to read more about our free sample testing and evaluation program.

For more information about particle size reduction and how to achieve efficient and consistent results, download our FREE eBook:

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Topics: Particle Size Reduction

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 Particle Size Reduction

Micro/Nano Emulsions


Cell Rupture


Abrasive and Viscous Materials